Types of Glaucoma
Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG)
is the most common form of glaucoma in Australia.
The optic nerve is damaged and in most cases this is caused by high eye pressure, which will lead to loss of peripheral vision.
Most patients have no symptoms as there is no pain and in the early stages, vision seems normal.
Pressure rises occur due to reduced drainage in the trabecular mesh work. The eyes fluid production is greater than what can be drained out
Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma where white particles appear on the lens capsule and can get into the trabecular meshwork, blocking some of the canals.Pseudo Exfoliation Glaucoma (PXF)
These white particles have the appearance of microscopic dandruff and are usually accompanied by pigment granules from the back surface of the iris, this accumulates in the tissues of the trabecular meshwork and interferes with the drainage fluid from the inside of the eye to the blood vessels on the surface of the globe. The eye pressure then rises. It may do so quickly and at very high levels. If this occurs to the optic nerve fibres will be damaged and vision loss, may occur rapidly.
Normal tension (or Low tension) glaucoma
Optic nerve damage can occur in people even though they have low or normal eye pressure.
Approximately 1/3rd of glaucoma cases the characteristic of optic nerve changes and visual field loss can develop in an eye with normal pressure – normal tension glaucoma
Even though eye pressure is with-in the normal range, there is evidence to show that lowering the pressure of the eye to a lower limit with the use eye drops and sometimes laser or surgery can help preserve patients’ vision by reducing further damage to the optic nerve.
Acute angle-closure glaucoma
is when the pressure inside the eye rapidly increases due to the iris blocking the drain through which fluid travels out from the eye, symptoms are sudden and severe pain will be felt in the eye it will be red and there will be reduced or blurred vision . you will also feel unwell and could possibly vomit . THIS IS A MEDICAL EMERGENCY If any of these symptoms occur treatment is required immediately to reduce the severity of vision loss If treatment is delayed there can be permanent visual damage in a short time.
Pigmentary Glaucoma (PDS)
Pigment dispersion syndrome is one example of an underlying eye condition that can lead to a blockage in the trabecular meshwork . The focusing lens of the eye is held in position by taut scaffolding called the zonule. If the iris (the coloured part) bows backwards,and rubs against these zonules resulting in the pigment granules, which give the iris its colour, becomeing dislodged. These can fall into the meshwork and block the flow of fluid -much like a strainer traps tea leaves. As more and more pigment granules become caught, the trabecular drain works less and less efficiently. The eye pressure starts to rise.and treatment is required to reduce the pressure